||Definition and or Use*
||GAC, carbon, activated coal,
|A widely used water treatment medium commonly
used for dechlorination, organics removal and other specialty processes.
Base products include but not limited to bituminous coal, coconut and
||Dealkalizer, Alkaline Water, M-Alkalinity,
||The quantitative capacity of water to neutralize an acid; that is,
the measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a
significant change in pH. Alkalinity is not the same as pH because water
does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have high alkalinity. In
the water industry, alkalinity is expressed in mg/L of equivalent
||White stuff, SBA, Strong base Anion, WBA, Weak
base Anion, tannin resin, Type 1 Anion, Type II Anion, organic scavenger
||An ion with a negative charge. Anion Exchange is an ion exchange
process in which anions in solution are exchanged for other anions from
an ion exchanger.
||Resin Bed, Filter bed, Softener bed, softner
||The mass or volume of ion exchange resin or other media through
which the water passes in the process of water treatment.
||Salt Solution, Saturated Brine
||A strong solutions of salt (s), usually sodium chloride and other
salts too. Potassium or sodium chloride brine is used in the
regeneration state of cation and or anion exchange water treatment
equipment. Sodium chlordie brine saturation in an ion exchange softening
brine tank is about 26 percent NaCI by weight at 60 degrees F.
||Trash Can, Salt Bale, Brine Keeper, Salt Tank,
Brine Maker, Brine Holding Tank, Brine Measuring Tank
||A Brine Tank hold the brine solution used in conjunction with water
treatment equipment. The brine is used to regenerate the resin.
||One of the principal elements making up the earth's crust. Calcium
compounds, when dissolved, make water hard. The presence of calcium in
water is a factor contributing to the formation of scale and insoluble
soap curds, which are a means of clearly identifying hard water.
||A substance that changes the speed or yield of a chemical reaction
without being consumed or chemically changed by the chemical reaction.
||Those filter media which can cause certain reactions to occur in
water treatment, such as activated carbon, calcite, manganese greensand,
manganese oxides, and dissimilar metal alloys.
||SAC, Strong Acid Cation, Softener Resin, WAC,
Wek Acid Cation, Zeolite, Softener Beads, Softner Beads, Softner Resin
||An ion with a positive charge. Cation Exchange is an ion exchange
process in which cations in solution are exchanged for other cations
from an ion exchanger.
||The exchange of cation for hydrogen ions by a strong acid cation
exchanger operated in the hydrogen form.
||Degasify, Degassing, Decarbonator, Forced Draft
Degasifier, VOC Tower, Air Stripper
||The removal of dissolved gasses such as carbon dioxide, methane,
hydrogen sulfide, and oxygen by: 1) subjecting the water to as pressure
below atmospheric pressure (vacuum degassing) or 2) passing large
amounts of air thoroughly through the water at atmospheric pressure (air
||Demineralizer, Demin, DI
||The removal of all ionized minerals and salts (both organic and
inorganic) from a solution by a two-phase ion exchange procedure: First,
positively charged ions are removed by a cation exchange resin in
exchange for a chemically equivalent amount of hydrogen ions. Second,
negatively charged ions are removed by an anion exchange resin for a
chemically equivalent amount of hydroxide ions. The hydrogen and
hydroxide introduced in this process unite to from water molecules. This
process is also called demineralization by ion exchange.
||An ion exchange process designed for reduction of silica from a
water supply. Typically a strong base anion exchanger operated in the
OH- form is used.
|DI Exchange Tanks
||DI Bottles, SDI, Service DI, PE, Portable
Exchange, PEDI, Exchange Bottles
||Tanks that are leased or rented to a facility lacking the means to
regenerate the medium, usually ion exchange resin.
||Mesh Size, Average Size
||A measure of the diameter of particles in a media bed or resin bed.
Effective size is that mesh size which will permit 10 percent of the
bed's particles to pass and will retain that remaining 90 percent; in
other words, that size for which 10 percent of the media grains or
particles are smaller and 90 percent are larger
||Boiler Feed water, Makeup Water, Boiler Make up
||The water to be treated that is fed inot a given water treatment
||GPM, Gallons Per Minute, M3/Hr, Feet per Second
||The quantity of water or regenerant which passes a given point in a
specified unit of time often expressed in US gpm (orL/min). In filter,
flow rate is usually measured in gpm/sq. ft of bed area. In ion
exchangers, it is expressed in gpm/cu.ft of resin. Flow rate is a
critical design parameter by which the effectiveness of the water
treatment unit is measured.
||Water found beneath the surface of the ground. Groundwater is
primarily water which has seeped do0wn from the surface by migrating
through the interstitial spaces in soils and geologic formation.
||A common quality of water which contains dissolved compounds of
calcium and magnesium and, sometimes, other divalent and trivalent
metallic elements. The term hardness was originally applied to waters
that were hard to wash in, referring to the soap wasting properties of
hard water. Hardness prevents soap from lathering by causing the
development of an insoluble curdy precipitate in the water; hardness
typically causes the buildup of hardness scale (such as seen in cooking
pans and in boilers). Dissolved calcium and mangesium salts are
primarily responsible for most scaling. Hardness is usually expressed in
grains per gallon (or ppm) as calcium carbonate equivalent.
||Sulfur, Rotten Egg Smell, Sulphur
||A corrosive and flammable gas often found dissolved in well water
and often accompanied by iron and low pH values. The odor of water with
as little as 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of hydrogen sulfide
concentration is detectable by most people. Concentrations less than one
mg/L gives the water a "musty" or "swampy" odor. Over one mg/L hydrogen
sulfide concentration gives the water a "rotten egg" odor and makes the
water corrosive to plumbing
||Boiler Makeup Water
||Treated water added to the water loop of a boiler circuit or cooling
tower to make up for the water lost by steam leaks or evaporation.
||Mixed Bed Resin, Mix Bed,
||The intermix of two or more filter or ion exchange products in the
same vessel during a service run.
||Complete removal and replacement of the media or resin from a tank
is considered a rebed. Adding to a resin bed that may habe lost resin is
considered "topping off"
||The use of a chemical solution (regenerant) to displace the
contaminant ions deposited on the ion exchange resin during the service
runs and replace them with the kind of ions neccessary to restore the
capacity of the exchange medium for reuse.
||As used in the water processing industry, this term refers to ion
exchange resin products which are usually specifically-manufactured
organic polymer beads used in softening and other ion exchange processes
to remove dissolved salts from water.
||That part of a water treatment system that contains the filter
medium or ion exchange resin.
||Any group of water soluble, natural organic phenolic compounds that
are produced by metabolism in trees and plants, and are part of the
degradation-resistant fulvic acid materials formed during the
decomposition of vegetation. Tannins occur in water in almost any
location where large quantities of vegetation have decayed. Tannins can
impart a faintly yellowish to brown color to water. Tannin molecules
tend to form anions in water above pH 6 and can then be treated with
anion exchange resins. Below pH 5, tannins are bettr treated with
||Radiation (light) having a wavelength shorter than 3900 angstroms,
the wavelengths of visible light, and longer than 100 angstroms, the
wavelenths of x-rays. This wavelength puts ultraviolet light at the
invisible violet end of the light spectrum. Ultraviolet light is used as
||The reduction/removal of calcium and magnesium ions, which are the
principal cause of hardness in water. The cation exchange resin method
is most commonly water treatment. In municipal and industrial water
treatment, the process can be lime softening or lime-soda softening.